Diabetes is categorized in two main types, Type 1 and Type 2. Whereas Type 2 mostly affects adults and people over 40 years, Type 1 is commonly seen in children. The onset Type 1 diabetes is certain when the beta cells get destroyed due to the presence of aggressive nature of cells in the body.
Some researches point towards the possibilities for the onset of Type 1 diabetes which are, poor diet or malnutrition, genetic factors, and due to the affect of certain virus on the pancreas. It is also said that in many cases, the onset of diabetes occurs due to abnormal secretion of some hormones in blood. These hormones, Adrenaline hormone, Thyroid hormone, and Adrenocortical hormone, act as antagonists to insulin. Some also add other causes of Type 1 diabetes, such as early feeding of cow's milk, jaundice and respiratory infection soon after birth, and genetics factors. At the same time, it is also said that the exact causes of this type of diabetes are still to be found out. Lot of research work is going on to find more about this disturbing and widespread disorder.
It is also believed that certain conditions like pancreatitis, pancreatic surgery, or some kind of industrial chemical can also cause diabetes. Beta blocker, phenytoin, and corticosteroids can also cause temporary diabetes. Some genetic disorders like Huntington's chorea, Klinefelter syndrome, leprechaunism, Wolfram syndrome, etc can also lead to this disease. Moreover, some hormonal disorders, such as hyperthyroidism, somatostatinoma, cushing syndrome, acromegaly, etc also increase the risk for diabetes.
When we say that genetic factors result in causing diabetes in some cases, we find studies which indicate that at least 18 genetic locations, IDDM1 - IDDM18, are related to Type 1 diabetes. More studies are underway to find further details in this respect.
Many people suffering from Type 1 diabetes are found with no family history of this disorder. There is a 10% chance of someone to inherit this disease if a first-degree relative has diabetes. Children are believed to inherit diabetes from father than from mother having this disease.
In Type 1, which is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, pancreas fails to produce insulin and the patient needs insulin to be injected. It is essential to administer insulin otherwise the glucose level in the blood would rise to very high level. Patients are also advised to consume a well planned diet.
When we look at the possible symptoms of Type 1 diabetes, we find people with this disorder losing weight without any known reasons, always tired and feeling unwell, excessive hunger, excessive thirst and frequent urination.
As this type of disorder is on the constant increase, more research is being conducted to determine more relevant causes of this disease. Whatever the causes are, we have to control the symptoms of this disease to avoid other serious health risks.