Diabetes occurs due to high blood sugar level and defective insulin metabolism. It is characterized under two types. Type 1 diabetes comes suddenly, whereas type 2 is subtle and is generally due to aging or obesity. However both types of diabetes show similar signs and symptoms.
1. Polyuria - Excess of urination - Extra sugar in the body is sent out in the urine. Along with sugar large amount of water is emitted out of the body. This may lead to dehydration.
2. Polydipsia - Increased thirst - Due to high levels of blood sugar, the kidney is not able to reabsorb the sugar. As kidney spills the excess sugar, more urine is made. To compensate this excess of urination, more intake of water is encouraged by the body.
3. Nausea and vomiting are main symptoms of type 1 diabetes. These are ketoacidosis which results in dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. If not treated promptly it may results in coma and death.
4. Polyphagia - Excessive eating - For metabolism of excess blood sugar the body, if able, secretes more insulin. Insulin stimulate hunger, hence tendency of increased eating develops.
5. Due to polydipsia, polyuria and polyphagia extreme weight fluctuation is noticed in patient of diabetes. Many of the calories of the foods remain unprocessed in diabetic patient and hence sharp weight loss is observed.
6. Person suffering from this disease feel fatigued. Since the body is not able to use the glucose for producing energy, the muscle and fat tissues are broken to produce the required energy. As a result of this people feel tired frequently.
7. Diabetes suppresses immune system which results in autoimmune disorders like respiratory complaints, poor wound healing, genitor-urinary tract, skin infections etc.
8. Blurry vision and disturbed mental status are also symptoms of this disease.
Diabetes may occur due to various reasons. Some of the common causes of diabetes are described as below.
1. Hereditary is considered to be one of the most prominent causes of diabetes. Some genes inherited from parent have been identified as a cause of this disease. The chance of inheriting it increases if both the parents are diabetic.
2. Obesity or being overweight means more insulin resistance. Hence it becomes a cause for diabetes.
3. Age is a factor in diabetes. Though it can occur to any age group it is observed that people of age group 50 and more are more vulnerable to this disease.
4. Improper diet is an anticipated cause for developing or enhancing diabetes. High-fat diet, high alcohol intake, inadequate protein and fiber increase the risks of this disease. People who exercise regularly are less at risk of this disease than the people with sedentary lifestyle.
5. Because of various reasons some hormones like Adrenocortical hormone, Adrenaline hormone and Thyroid hormone are secreted in body abnormally. These hormones work as antagonists to insulin. Disturbances to insulin result in diabetes.
6. Steroids and stress causes physical or emotional disturbances and hence become a cause of diabetes.
7. High blood pressure, high blood triglyceride (fat) and cholesterol levels, hypertension are also causes for initiating diabetes.
8. Women suffering from Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or with multiple pregnancies are more prone to this disease.
9. Some drugs like Clozapine (Clozaril), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel) and ziprasidone (Geodon) are cause for inducing diabetes.